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White Ops reports biggest ad fraud botnet found yet: ‘Methbot’ targeting high-CPM video inventory
The botnet has been siphoning an estimated $3 to $5 million in ad revenue per day, making it the largest ad fraud scam uncovered to date.
Digital advertising fraud security firm White Ops released a report Tuesday detailing the exploits of “Methbot,” a new variation on the botnet. The firm says Russian cybercriminals have used Methbot to siphon off $3 to $5 million in video ad revenue from premium publishers every day.
The operation targeted high-value video advertising inventory, including inventory sold through private marketplaces, by spoofing more than 6,000 premium publisher domains and creating fake pages on which it could run real ads from real advertisers. White Ops is releasing a list of 250,267 URLs that were generated by Methbot across 6,111 publisher domains. Some example fake pages from the report:
What makes Methbot unique from other major botnets is that instead of hijacking home computers at the user level, the Russian cyber criminals invested in building a network of 800 to 1,200 dedicated servers running from data servers in the US and the Netherlands. The perpetrators then obtained or leased 571,904 real IP addresses. The real IP addresses mask the fake ad calls by making them appear to come from legitimate residential Internet Service Providers such as Verizon, Comcast and Spectrum.
IPv4 Market Group estimated the IP addresses alone currently are valued at over $4 million.
Using sophisticated anti-fraud detection methods and faking human activity (in addition to faking cursor movements and clicks to mimic human activity, Methbot forges fake social network login information to make it appear that a user is logged in when an impression occurs), White Ops believes Methbot is by far the biggest ad fraud scam to affect digital advertising.
White Ops worked with AD/FIN, a programmatic media intelligence company, to get a sense of the economic impact of Methbot. White Ops estimates the botnet has been generating between 200 to 300 million video ad impressions daily since early October. AD/FIN determined the CPMs on the ad impressions targeted ranged from $3.27 to $36.72, averaging to $13.04. That works out to $3 to $5 million in stolen ad revenue each day.
For comparison, the ZeroAccess botnet was estimated to take in $900,000 per day and the Chameleon botnet, $200,000 per day.
White Ops says it first noticed what appears to be the initial seed of Methbot in September 2015. The botnet generated little activity among White Ops clients until it rapidly developed into what the security firm dubbed Methbot for the references to “meth” in its code in October of this year.
White Ops has partnered with The Trustworthy Accountability Group (TAG) tagtoday.net, a consortium of industry associations, to help disseminate information and data including the list of known IP addresses used by Methbot and falsified domains and URLs to help the industry shut down Methbot’s operation.
Update 9:50 am ET 12/20/2016: TAG CEO, Mike Zaneis, has issued the following statement on how the group is addressing the Methbot threat:
“The massive fraud operation represents a significant threat to the integrity of the ecosystem, and it shows why TAG’s work is so vital in bringing the digital advertising industry together to share information, adopt rigorous standards, validate best practices, and increase transparency.
“Within 24 hours of our notification by White Ops, TAG was able to alert 130 fraud compliance officers at the largest and most influential digital advertising companies and bring the vast majority of those anti-fraud leaders together to learn details of the attack and determine the appropriate action for their companies to take.
“In addition to sharing that information directly with companies, TAG is also expediting its review of the IP addresses shared by White Ops for inclusion on TAG’s shared blacklist of data center IP addresses that are significant sources of fraud. Given that the most advanced feature of this operation was its forged IP space, we believe TAG’s information-sharing platform will allow responsible industry actors to mitigate the threat quickly and effectively.
“As scores of additional companies join the initial group of participants approved earlier this month to TAG’s Certified Against Fraud Program, TAG will continue to build a unified defense against the criminals who steal from our industry. We deeply appreciate White Ops’ leadership in sharing this intelligence with the broader digital advertising community.”